Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. J Res Sci Teach. Piaget J, Inhelder B. New York: Routledge; Ter Arkh. Stages of Cognitive Development. Major Characteristics. Understanding Egocentrism. Understanding Conservation. View All. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns?
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Article Sources. Rathus, SA. Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development. Santrock, JW.
Life-Span Human Development. Continue Reading.
Jean Piaget's Life and Contributions to Psychology. Through outlining each theory and describing the research, a better understanding will be gained in how each can be applied within a primary classroom. Within the sociocultural theory of development lies terms which will be discussed and critiqued in regards to education. In this assignment the writer will compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky. To begin, the writer will discuss Piaget's theory of cognitive development, followed by Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.
The writer will then discuss any implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's models for teaching and learning in the school years. In order to do this she will compare the two theories and look at any relevant evidence and research. After comparing both theories of. There are four different stages.
The stages start at infant age and work all the way up to adulthood. The stages include things like judgment, thought, and knowledge of infants, children, teens, and adults. These four stages were names after Jean Piaget a developmental biologist and psychologist. Piaget recorded intellectual abilities and developments of infants, children, and teens. Sensorimotor is from birth up to twenty- four months of age. Preoperational which is toddlerhood includes from eighteen months old all the …show more content….
I handed my infant niece, Harper, a set of keys, thinking she would shake them and giggle at the noise they made. My prediction was correct. As soon as I held the keys in front of her she began to reach for them. Then once I handed the keys to her, she rattled them making a clanging noise. The preoperational stage is when infants become older, young children and they are able to think in a more symbolic way.
In this stage children start to learn the difference between real and make believe, past and future. But they still not be able to speak like adult, they can at least use one or two-words sentences to delivered messages. According to Newkirk, imagination level of children in this stage will usually increase and they are more curious to all things instead of being logical.
Unlikely the first stage, in this second stage children will spend more of their time by putting role while they are playing. For instance, children always pretend a box is a house for them to shelter. Even myself experienced that during my childhood. Next is centration, the authors described the meaning as the children focus on one feature of problems while ignoring other features. For example, children will not understand if we tell them "Your sister is my daughter" because their ability is limited. Moving on, the last characteristic is animism.
In this characteristic, the authors claimed that children belief that all things have lives.
They considered inanimate objects have emotions and feelings like them. For example, a girl who age 3 years old always talk with her teddy bear as the teddy bear is alive and answers her. Even though they are getting capable in the usage of logic but they still having the difficulty in understanding the hypothetical concepts Krause et al.
The authors also claimed that there are several processes in this stage that involve in child development, that are reversibility where the children have the ability to think about the reverse event such as in mathematical solving problems where they need to add and subtract and add it back, secondly is seriation which menas the ability to mentally put things in order according to its features for example size, weight, and height.
Next is compensation, where the children have the ability see that something is increase because of something is decrease such as the height is increasing because of the width s decreasing and vice versa. Besides, the fourth is classficiation which means the ability that children have to name and identify the sets or group of the objects by its features such as size, colours and appearance.
Class inclusion is the fifth processes mentioned by the authors which bring the meaning of ability to understand that a small amount of groups can be combine to form a large group as Krause et al. Last but not least the processes found by Krause et al. For example, a child is presented with two same sized of bowls filled with flour, but when one of the full bowl flour is pour into jar with different sized he and she or he will still know that the quantity of the flour is the same either it is in bowl or jar.
Lastly, the fourth stages in Piagetian is formal operations which occur to 11 years old children and beyond Santrock, Santrock stated that in this stages people continue to develop ability of thinking with presence of abstract concept. Logically, children begin to take notes about the possibility of the consequences of every events they experienced and also started to think in a formal way.
Besides, Krause et al. As the author define deductive reasoning as the potentiality of children to use a general principle to determine a specific outcome, on the other hand inductive reasoning is using and observing specific outcome to include general principles. In this final stage also children will develop their problem solving activities.
When entering adoloscence, they are able to do systematic planning in their life and also make a hypothesis, inference far better than stages before Brenda, Overall, that are the four stages that involve in child development until adolescence.
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Preschool children are basically who are still develop their cognitive abilities in stage two, preoperational. As stated by Krause et al. Moreover, by introduce to children this concept means we are letting them to be independent and explore their world by themselves. Preschool children who are basically age between 4 to 6 years are in preoperaional stage.
Concrete operational and formal operational stages Essay Example 🥇 OzziEssay
As I explained in previous sub-questions, children in this stage has become more capable in obtaining language skills and using it to represent objects but still limited because they cannot reached the events where explanation need to relate with concrete logic. Firstly as parents, they must give freedom to their children especially preschool children to play with their friends since children in this stage will spent more of their time with playing Krause et al. Nowadays, majority of parents always having misconceptions, they think that they cannot let their children play too much, in fact they should not too strict in controlling their children.
What parents should do is by letting their children play with their friends but make sure to supervision who are their friends.
Preoperational Stage Essay Examples
Logically, according to Krause et al. Create a safe-mode place for them to play so that they feels your attention towards them, during this process children will encounter some problems. This is the right time to let them be independence by solving their problems but with supervision. Even though at first they might not really capable in solving it but it will be better as they go through this process and get knowledge from what we called as hands-on experiences Krause et al.