What Are Chemosynthetic Bacteria?
At about the same time, Harvard graduate student Colleen Cavanaugh proposed chemosynthetic bacteria that oxidize sulfides or elemental sulfur as a mechanism by which tube worms could survive near hydrothermal vents. Cavanaugh later managed to confirm that this was indeed the method by which the worms could thrive, and is generally credited with the discovery of chemosynthesis. A television series hosted by Bill Nye named chemosynthesis as one of the greatest scientific discoveries of all time. In , researchers reported their discovery of bacteria living in the rock of the oceanic crust below the thick layers of sediment, and apart from the hydrothermal vents that form along the edges of the tectonic plates.
Preliminary findings are that these bacteria subsist on the hydrogen produced by chemical reduction of olivine by seawater circulating in the small veins that permeate the basalt that comprises oceanic crust. The bacteria synthesize methane by combining hydrogen and carbon dioxide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about biological consumption of energy from inorganic compounds.
For chemical synthesis in molecular nanotechnology, see Chemosynthesis nanotechnology. Pearson International Edition, San Francisco. Hunter, C. Neil, Dordrecht: Springer. Wegener, M. Elvert, M. Yoshinaga, Y-S.
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Lin, T. Holler, X. Millar, K. Knittel, and K-U. Hinrichs Autotrophy as a predominant mode of carbon fixation in anaerobic methane-oxidizing microbial communities. The chemolithotrophic prokaryotes.
In: The prokaryotes pp. Springer New York, . Mechanisms of chemo-autotrophy. In: Marine ecology , Vol.
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Kinne, ed. Watch the "Greatest Discoveries in Evolution" online. Metabolism , catabolism , anabolism. Metabolic pathway Metabolic network Primary nutritional groups.
Protein synthesis Catabolism. Pentose phosphate pathway Fructolysis Galactolysis. Glycosylation N-linked O-linked. Photosynthesis Anoxygenic photosynthesis Chemosynthesis Carbon fixation.
2. 24: Chemosynthesis
Xylose metabolism Radiotrophism. Fatty acid degradation Beta oxidation Fatty acid synthesis.
Steroid metabolism Sphingolipid metabolism Eicosanoid metabolism Ketosis Reverse cholesterol transport. Amino acid synthesis Urea cycle. Purine metabolism Nucleotide salvage Pyrimidine metabolism. Chemosynthesis is also a critical part of the nitrogen cycle , where bacteria that live in the soil , or in special plant structures called heterocysts, utilize ammonia for energy and produce nitrates and nitrites which can subsequently be used as nutrients for plants.
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Some bacteria can also utilize hydrogen gas H 2 and carbon dioxide CO 2 in a chemosynthetic pathway that results in the production of new organic compounds and methane CH 4. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
Deep In The Ocean, A Clam That Acts Like A Plant -- ScienceDaily
Bundy, Marie H. October 18, Retrieved October 18, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Most life on earth is fueled directly or indirectly by sunlight. There are, however, certain groups of bacteria, referred to as chemosynthetic autotrophs, that are fueled not by the sun but by the oxidation of simple inorganic chemicals, such as sulfates or ammonia.
Chemosynthetic autotrophs are a necessary part of the nitrogen cycle. Some groups of these bacteria are well suited to conditions that would have existed on the earth billions of years ago, leading some to postulate that these are living representatives of the earliest life on earth.